Cultures > Kingdom of Sophene

Kingdom of Sophene

Background

Kingdom of Sophene Ծոփքի թագավորություն 3rd century – 94 BC Capital Karkathiokerta Languages Armenian Government Monarchy Historical era Hellenistic Age • gained independence from the Achaemenid Empire 3rd century BC • conquered (or reconquered) by Tigranes the Great 94 BC Preceded by Succeeded by Satrapy of Armenia Kingdom of Armenia (Antiquity) Kingdom of Commagene History of Armenia Coat of Arms of Armenia Etymology Timeline Traditional Urheimat Prehistory[show] Antiquity[hide] Achaemenid Period Satrapy of Armina 549–331 BC Orontid Dynasty Ancient Armenia Kingdom of Armenia 321 BC–428 AD Artaxiad dynasty 189 BC–12 AD Empire 84–34 BC Arsacid dynasty 52–428 AD Roman–Parthian War 58–63 AD Roman Province of Armenia 114–118 AD Christianization 301 AD Armenia Minor 331–72 BC Kingdom of Sophene c.200–94 BC Kingdom of Commagene 163 BC–72 AD Marzpanate period Byzantine Armenia 387–536 Persian Armenia 428–646 Mamikonian dynasty Battle of Avarayr 451 Middle Ages[show] Early modern age[show] Modern age[show] Armenia portal v t e The Kingdom of Sophene (Armenian: Ծոփքի Թագավորութիւն) was an ancient Armenian kingdom.[1][2][3] Founded around the 3rd century BC the kingdom maintained independence until around 90 BC when Tigranes the Great conquered the territories as part of his empire.[3] An offshoot of this kingdom was the Kingdom of Commagene, formed when the Seleucids detached Commagene from Sophene.[1] Origins[edit] Sophene was part of the kingdom of Urartu in the 8th-7th centuries BC. After unifying the region with his kingdom in the early 8th century BC, king Argishti I of Urartu resettled many of its inhabitants to his newly built city of Erebuni. Sophene then became a province of the ancient Armenian Kingdom of Orontids around 600 BC. After Alexander the Great's campaigns in 330s BC and the subsequent collapse of the Achaemenid Empire, it became one of the first regions of Armenia to be exposed to Greek influence and adopted some aspects of Greek culture. Sophene remained part of the newly independent kingdom of Greater Armenia. Around the 3rd century BC, the Seleucid Empire forced Sophene to split from Greater Armenia, giving rise to the Kingdom of Sophene. The kingdom was ruled by a branch of the Armenian royal dynasty of Orontids.[1] The kingdom's capital was Carcathiocerta, identified as the now abandoned town-site of Egil on the Tigris river north of Diyarbakir. However, its largest settlement and only true city was Arsamosata, located further to the north. Arsamosata was founded in the 3rd century B.C. and survived in a contracted state until perhaps the early 13th century A.D.[4] Though the kingdom's rulers were Armenian, the ethnicity of the kingdom was mixed, having a population of Armenian descent and a population of Semitic descent, infiltrating from the South, a situation still existent at the time of the Crusades.[5] Gallery[edit] Sames coin 260 BC.png Arsames I coin 240 BC.jpg Arsames II 230 BC Coin.png Xerxes of Armenia coin 220 BC.jpg Coin of Sames 260 BC Coin of Arsames I 240 BC Coin of Arsames II 230 BC. Coin of Xerxes of Armenia 220 BC Abdissares coin 210 BC.jpg Zariadres coin 190 BC.png Arkathias coin 190-175 BC.jpg Morphilig coin 150 BC.jpg Coin of Abdissares 210 BC Coin of Zariadres, 190 BC Coin of Arkathius, 190-175 BC Coin of Morphilig, 150 BC Notes[edit] ^ Jump up to: a b c Toumanoff, Cyril(1963) Studies in Christian Caucasian History, Georgetown University Press Jump up ^ Traditio, By Institute of Research and Study in Medieval Canon Law Summary(1943)Contributor Johannes Quasten, Stephan Kuttner, Fordham University Press ^ Jump up to: a b Bedoukian, Paul (1985). Coinage of the Armenia Kingdoms of Sophene and Commagene. Los Angeles: Armenian Numismatic Society. pp. 30 pages. ISBN 0-9606842-3-9. Jump up ^ T. A. Sinclair, "Eastern Turkey, an Architectural and Archaeological survey, volume 3, pages 112, 196, 358. Jump up ^ T. A. Sinclair, "Eastern Turkey, an Architectural and Archaeological survey, volume 3, pages 359.

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